This is the main site.
This is a big topic to cover. It will take many times for me to add to this, so check back to see if I added to it. Sometimes I might refer to Medi-Cal. California adds its money to the Medicaid money and therefore can call the program Medi-Cal (a combo of of the 2 names). Some states will call the program something else, some call it Medicaid, and some don't offer it at all. There is a wide variation and you will have to find out your state rules and names.
Medicaid is the government program for medical care One would need this if they didn't have medical insurance. Also, if the cost for medical care is too high for one to meet, then use it. I found a great description of Medicaid:
Medicaid is a medical assistance program jointly financed by state and federal governments for low income individuals and is embodied in 42 U.S.C. §1396 et seq (http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/42/ch7schXIX.html). It was first enacted in 1965 as an amendment to the Social Security Act of 1935. Today, Medicaid is a major social welfare program and is administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (http://www.cms.hhs.gov/), formerly known as the Health Care Financing Administration.
Among the services that Medicaid covers are: in-patient hospital services, out-patient hospital services, laboratory and x-ray services, skilled nursing home services, physicians' services, physical therapy, hospice care, and rehabilitative services. Patients are restricted when selecting who will take care of their needs by selecting from pre-approved physicians and other providers of medical care. Because physicians are not fully reimbursed for services provided to Medicaid patients, many of them limit the number of Medicaid patients they see. (http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/index.php/Medicaid)
Because eligibility requirements vary from state to state, you should apply. There's no telling if you qualify. Basically, if you are low income and disabled, you should apply. Low income is the key. Sometimes you can qualify with a higher income but there is a share of cost, or co-pay. This might be worth it if you have medical expenses that exceed this (i.e. the month you pay your insurance premium).
If you have savings or an inheritance then you should first consult a lawyer before applying. For example in my case, my father can't leave me anything because the state will take it (he consulted a lawyer). It will be up to my sisters to make sure my children will get property that has been in the family. The house I live in belongs to my father. When he dies, a sister will get the deed and I can live in the house.